1112 - Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona and Douce I of Provence marry, uniting the fortunes of those two states.
1377 - more than 2,000 people of the Italian city of Cesena are slaughtered by Papal Troops (Cesena Bloodbath).
1451 - Sultan Mehmed II inherits the throne of the Ottoman Empire.
1488 - Bartolomeu Dias of Portugal lands in Mossel Bay after rounding the Cape of Good Hope, becoming the first known European to travel so far south.
1509 - The Battle of Diu, between Portugal and the Ottoman Empire takes place in Diu, India.
1637 - Tulip mania collapses in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands) by government order.
1690 - The colony of Massachusetts issues the first paper money in America.
1706 - During the Battle of Fraustadt Swedish forces defeat a superior Saxon-Polish-Russian force by deploying a double envelopment.
1783 - American Revolutionary War: Spain recognizes United States independence.
1787 - Shays' Rebellion is crushed.
1807 - A British military force, under Brigadier-General Sir Samuel Auchmuty captures the city of Montevideo, then part of the Spanish Empire now the capital of Uruguay.
1809 - The Illinois Territory is created.
1830 - The sovereignty of Greece is confirmed in a London Protocol.
1834 - Wake Forest University is established.
1867 - Emperor Meiji becomes the 122nd emperor of Japan.
1870 - The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, granting voting rights to citizens regardless of race.
1900 - Gubernatorial candidate William Goebel is assassinated in Frankfort, Kentucky.
1908 - Foundation of Panathinaikos in Athens, Greece.
1913 - The Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, authorizing the Federal government to impose and collect an income tax.
1916 - Parliament buildings in Ottawa, Canada burn down.
1917 - World War I: The United States breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany a day after the former announced a new policy of unrestricted submarine warfare.
1918 - The Twin Peaks Tunnel in San Francisco, California begins service as the longest streetcar tunnel in the world at 11,920 feet (3,633 meters) long.
1930 - The Communist Party of Vietnam is established.
1931 - The Hawke's Bay earthquake, New Zealand's worst natural disaster, kills 258.
1944 - World War II: United States troops capture the Marshall Islands.
1945 - World War II: The Soviet Union agrees to enter the Pacific Theatre conflict against Japan.
1945 - World War II: As part of Operation Thunderclap, 1,000 B-17's of the Eighth Air Force bomb Berlin.
1947 - The lowest temperature in North America is recorded in Snag, Yukon.
1957 - Senegalese political party Democratic Rally merges into the Senegalese Party of Socialist Action (PSAS).
1958 - Founding of the Benelux Economic Union, creating a testing ground for a later European Economic Community.
1959 - A plane crash near Clear Lake, Iowa kills Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, The Big Bopper, and pilot Roger Peterson and the incident becomes known as The Day the Music Died.
1966 - The unmanned Soviet Luna 9 spacecraft makes the first controlled rocket-assisted landing on the Moon.
1967 - Ronald Ryan, the last person to be executed in Australia, is hanged in Pentridge Prison, Melbourne.
1969 - In Cairo, Yasser Arafat is appointed Palestine Liberation Organization leader at the Palestinian National Congress.
1971 - New York Police Officer Frank Serpico is shot during a drug bust in Brooklyn and survives to later testify against police corruption. Many believe the incident proves that NYPD officers tried to kill him.
1984 - Dr. John Buster and the research team at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center announce history's first embryo transfer, from one women to another resulting in a live birth.
1984 - Space Shuttle program: STS-41-B Mission – astronauts, Bruce McCandless II and Robert L. Stewart make the first untethered spacewalks using the Manned Maneuvering Unit.
1988 - Iran-Contra Affair: The United States House of Representatives rejects President Ronald Reagan's request for $36.25 million to aid Nicaraguan Contras.
1989 - After a stroke, P.W. Botha resigns party leadership and the presidency of South Africa.
1989 - A military coup overthrows Alfredo Stroessner, dictator of Paraguay since 1954.
1991 - The Italian Communist Party dissolves and splits into the Democratic Party of the Left and the Communist Refoundation Party.
1996 - The Lijiang earthquake in Lijiang, Yunnan, China.
1998 - Karla Faye Tucker is executed in Texas becoming the first woman executed in the United States since 1984.
1998 - Cavalese cable-car disaster: a United States Military pilot causes the death of 20 people when his low-flying plane cuts the cable of a cable-car near Trento, Italy.
1999 - In Jammu and Kashmir the political party Democratic Janata Dal is revived.
2007 - A Baghdad market bombing kills at least 135 people and injures a further 339.