Today: Saturday - 23 March 2019
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Pakistan: National Day


1174 - Jocelin, abbot of Melrose, is elected bishop of Glasgow.
1568 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. Again Catherine de' Medici and Charles IX of France make substantial concessions to the Huguenots.
1708 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth.
1775 - American Revolutionary War: Patrick Henry delivers his famous speech – "Give me Liberty, or give me Death!" – at St. John's Church in Richmond, Virginia.
1801 - Tsar Paul I of Russia is struck with a sword, then strangled, and finally trampled to death in his bedroom at St. Michael's Castle.
1806 - After traveling through the Louisiana Purchase and reaching the Pacific Ocean, explorers Lewis and Clark and their "Corps of Discovery" begin their arduous journey home.
1821 - Battle and fall of city of Kalamata, Greek War of Independence.
1848 - The ship John Wickliffe arrives at Port Chalmers carrying the first Scottish settlers for Dunedin, New Zealand. Otago province is founded.
1857 - Elisha Otis's first elevator is installed at 488 Broadway New York City.
1862 - The First Battle of Kernstown, Virginia, marks the start of Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign. Though a Confederate defeat, the engagement distracts Federal efforts to capture Richmond.
1868 - The University of California is founded in Oakland, California when the Organic Act is signed into law.
1879 - War of the Pacific is fought between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia and Peru. Chile successfully takes over Arica and Tarapacá leaving Bolivia as a landlocked country.
1889 - Land Run: President Benjamin Harrison opens Oklahoma to white settlement starting on April 22.
1889 - The free Woolwich Ferry officially opens in east London.
1889 - The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is established by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in Qadian India.
1896 - The Raines Law is passed by the New York State Legislature, restricting Sunday sale of alcohol to hotels.
1903 - The Wright Brothers apply for a patent on their invention of one of the first successful airplanes.
1908 - American diplomat Durham Stevens is attacked by Korean assassins Jeon Myeong-un and Jang In-hwan, leading to his death in a hospital two days later.
1909 - Theodore Roosevelt leaves New York for a post-presidency safari in Africa. The trip is sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and National Geographic Society.
1919 - In Milan, Italy, Benito Mussolini founds his Fascist political movement.
1931 - Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev are hanged during the Indian struggle for independence. Their request to be executed by firing squad is refused.
1933 - The Reichstag passes the Enabling act of 1933, making Adolf Hitler dictator of Germany.
1935 - Signing of the Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.
1939 - Hungarian air force attacked the headquarters of Slovak air force in the city of Spišská Nová Ves, killed 13 people and began the Slovak–Hungarian War.
1940 - The Lahore Resolution (Qarardad-e-Pakistan or the then Qarardad-e-Lahore) is put forward at the Annual General Convention of the All India Muslim League.
1942 - World War II: In the Indian Ocean, Japanese forces capture the Andaman Islands.
1956 - Pakistan becomes the first Islamic republic in the world. (Republic Day in Pakistan)
1962 - NS;Savannah, the first nuclear-powered cargo-passenger ship, is launched as a showcase for Dwight D. Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace initiative.
1965 - NASA launches Gemini 3, the United States' first two-man space flight (crew: Gus Grissom and John Young).
1978 - The first UNIFIL troops arrived in Lebanon for peacekeeping mission along the Blue Line.
1980 - Archbishop Óscar Romero of El Salvador gives his famous speech appealing to men of the El Salvadoran armed forces to stop killing the Salvadorans.
1982 - Guatemala's government, headed by Fernando Romeo Lucas García is overthrown in a military coup by right-wing General Efraín Ríos Montt.
1983 - Strategic Defense Initiative: President Ronald Reagan makes his initial proposal to develop technology to intercept enemy missiles.
1989 - Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann announce cold fusion at the University of Utah.
1994 - At an election rally in Tijuana, Mexican presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio is assassinated by Mario Aburto Martínez.
1994 - Aeroflot Flight 593 crashes in Siberia when the pilot's fifteen-year old son accidentally disengages the autopilot, killing all 75 people on board.
1994 - A United States Air Force (USAF) F-16 aircraft collides with a USAF C-130 at Pope Air Force Base and then crashes, killing 24 United States Army soldiers on the ground. This later became known as the Green Ramp disaster.
1996 - Taiwan holds its first direct elections and chooses Lee Teng-hui as President.
1999 - Gunmen assassinate Paraguay's Vice President Luis María Argaña.
2001 - The Russian Mir space station is disposed of, breaking up in the atmosphere before falling into the southern Pacific Ocean near Fiji.
2003 - In Nasiriyah, Iraq, 11 soldiers of the 507th Maintenance Company as well as 18 U.S. Marines are killed during the first major conflict of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
2004 - Andhra Pradesh Federation of Trade Unions holds its first conference in Hyderabad, India.
2005 - The United States 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, in a 2-1 decision, refuses to order the reinsertion of Terri Schiavo's feeding tube.
2005 - A major explosion at the Texas City Refinery kills 15 workers.
2006 - The Federal Reserve discontinues publishing M3 money supply.
2007 - Burnley Tunnel catastrophe occurs in Melbourne, Australia.
2007 - The Iranian Navy seizes Royal Navy personnel in the waters between Iran and Iraq.



1 JanuaryNew Year's Day (New Year's Day, Lá Caille, Lá Bliana Nua)
17 MarchSaint Patrick's Day (St. Patrick's Day, Lá Fhéile Pádraig)
22 AprilEaster Monday (Easter Monday, Luan Cásca)
6 MayEarly May Bank Holiday (Labour Day, Lá an Lucht Oibre)
3 JuneJune Holiday (June Holiday, Lá Saoire i mí Mheitheamh)
5 AugustAugust Holiday (August Holiday, Lá Saoire i mí Lúnasa)
28 OctoberOctober Holiday (October Holiday, Lá Saoire i mí Dheireadh Fómhair)
25 DecemberChristmas (Christmas Day, Lá Nollag)
26 DecemberSt. Stephen's Day (St. Stephen's Day, Lá Fhéile Stiofáin, Lá an Dreoilín)
Egypt  |  Eritrea  |  The Gambia  |  Lesotho  |  Namibia  |  Chile  |  Panama  |  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  |  Palau  |  Papua New Guinea  |  Norfolk Island  |    |  Wallis and Futuna  |  Vanuatu  |  Solomon Islands  |  Czech Republic  |  Estonia  |  Greece  |  Spain  |  Macedonia  |  Sweden  |  Afghanistan  |  Cyprus  |  Iraq  |  Lebanon  |  Tajikistan  |  Turkmenistan  |  Republic of Cape Verde  |  Sierra Leone  |  Christmas Island
Éire, Ireland
Ireland - FlagIreland - Coat of arms
Ireland - Location
Official languages: Irish, English
Government: Parliamentary republic
Currency: Euro (EUR)
Population: 4 422 100
Area: 70 273 km²
Religion: Catholicism (86.8%)
Time Zone:
UTC winter
UTC+1 summer
Auto Code: IRL
Internet TLD: .ie
Calling code: +353
Corporate Income Tax: 12,50%
Personal Income Tax: <41%
Value Added Tax: 4,8/5,2/13,5/21%.
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